Within the city are isolated hills that are not connected to the surrounding hill chains, such as El Agustino, San Cosme, El Pino, La Milla, Muleria and Pro hills.
The San Cristobal hill in the Rímac District, which lies directly north of the downtown area, is the local extreme of an Andean hill outgrowth.
They often assume that the valley is named after the river; however, Spanish documents from the colonial period show the opposite to be true.
Lima's anthem was heard for the first time on January 18, 2008, in a formal meeting with important politicians, including Peruvian President Alan García, and other authorities.
A combined expedition of Argentine and Chilean patriots under General José de San Martín landed south of Lima in 1820 but did not attack the city.
Faced with a naval blockade and the action of guerrillas on land, Viceroy José de la Serna e Hinojosa evacuated its capital in July 1821 to save the Royalist army.